GED e-placement test
REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS questions 1–7Click to Read Text
REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS
Read the following excerpt from Thomas de Quincey’s essay “The Vision of Sudden Death.” Then answer questions 1–7.
What is to be thought of sudden death? It is remarkable that, in different conditions of society it has been variously regarded as the consummation of an earthly career most fervently to be desired, and, on the other hand, as that consummation which is most of all to be deprecated. Caesar the Dictator, at his last dinner party, (cœna,) and the very evening before his assassination, being questioned as to the mode of death which, in his opinion, might seem the most eligible, replied—“That which should be most sudden.” On the other hand, the divine Litany of our English Church, when breathing forth supplications, as if in some representative character for the whole human race prostrate before God, places such a death in the very van of horrors. “From lightning and tempest; from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and murder, and from sudden death,—Good Lord, deliver us.” Sudden death is here made to crown the climax in a grand ascent of calamities; it is the last of curses; and yet, by the noblest of Romans, it was treated as the first of blessings. (In that difference, most readers will see little more than the difference between Christianity and Paganism. But there I hesitate. The Christian church may be right in its estimate of sudden death; and it is a natural feeling, though after all it may also be an infirm one, to wish for a quiet dismissal from life—as that which seems most reconcilable with meditation, with penitential retrospects, and with the humilities of farewell prayer. There does not, however, occur to me any direct scriptural warrant for this earnest petition of the English Litany. It seems rather a petition indulged to human infirmity, than exacted from human piety. And, however that may be, two remarks suggest themselves as prudent restraints upon a doctrine, which else may wander, and has wandered, into an uncharitable superstition. The first is this: that many people are likely to exaggerate the horror of a sudden death, (I mean the objective horror to him who contemplates such a death, not the subjective horror to him who suffers it,) from the false disposition to lay a stress upon words or acts, simply because by an accident they have become words or acts. If a man dies, for instance, by some sudden death when he happens to be intoxicated, such a death is falsely regarded with peculiar horror; as though the intoxication were suddenly exalted into a blasphemy. But that is unphilosophic. The man was, or he was not, habitually a drunkard. If not, if his intoxication were a solitary accident, there can be no reason at all for allowing special emphasis to this act, simply because through misfortune it became his final act. Nor, on the other hand, if it were no accident, but one of his habitual transgressions, will it be the more habitual or the more a transgression, because some sudden calamity, surprising him, has caused this habitual transgression to be also a final one? Could the man have had any reason even dimly to foresee his own sudden death, there would have been a new feature in his act of intemperance—a feature of presumption and irreverence, as in one that by possibility felt himself drawing near to the presence of God. But this is no part of the case supposed. And the only new element in the man’s act is not any element of extra immorality, but simply of extra misfortune.
What is the main idea in this text?
A C. The positive or negative qualities of sudden death are debatable.
B D. Sudden death is preferable to slow death.
C A. Death, by any method, is horrible.
D B. Slow death is preferable to sudden death.
What can you infer about the relationships presented in this text?
A A. Religion and philosophy agree that sudden death is to be preferred over other methods.
B B. There are conflicting viewpoints about sudden death between philosophy and religion.
C D. A pious life determines whether a person will die suddenly or slowly.
D C. Alcohol and sudden death are matters that seem to go hand in hand.
What is the meaning of the word prostrate as it is used in the following sentence from the text? On the other hand, the divine Litany of our English Church, when breathing forth supplications, as if in some representative character for the whole human race prostrate before God, places such a death in the very van of horrors.
A D. at the mercy of
B C. angrily opposing
C A. vertically positioned
D B. up in arms against
What role does the follwing sentence play in the development of the purpose of this text?
A B. It lays the premise for the rest of the paragraph’s development of the scope of this idea.
B C. It lays out the author’s direction of his opinion that sudden death is preferable.
C A. It forces the reader to question this for themselves.
D D. It implores a more knowledgeable person to answer the question.
Which claim is NOT supported by reason?
A C. “The first is this: that many people are likely to exaggerate the horror of a sudden death, (I mean the objective horror to him who contemplates such a death, not the subjective horror to him who suffers it,) from the false disposition to lay a stress upon words or acts, simply because by an accident they have become words or acts.”
B D. “If a man dies, for instance, by some sudden death when he happens to be intoxicated, such a death is falsely regarded with peculiar horror; as though the intoxication were suddenly exalted into a blasphemy.”
C B. “There does not, however, occur to me any direct scriptural warrant for this earnest petition of the English Litany.”
D A. “Sudden death is here made to crown the climax in a grand ascent of calamities; it is the last of curses; and yet, by the noblest of Romans, it was treated as the first of blessings.”
Which sentence best supports the main idea of this passage?
A D. “And the only new element in the man’s act is not any element of extra immorality, but simply of extra misfortune.”
B A. “It is remarkable that, in different conditions of society it has been variously regarded as the consummation of an earthly career most fervently to be desired, and, on the other hand, as that consummation which is most of all to be deprecated.”
C C. “From lightning and tempest; from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and murder, and from sudden death,—Good Lord, deliver us.”
D B. “. . . being questioned as to the mode of death which, in his opinion, might seem the most eligible, replied—“That which should be most sudden.”
How would the tone of the sentence differ if the word infirmity were to be replaced with the word suffering? It seems rather a petition indulged to human infirmity, than exacted from human piety.
A C. By replacing “infirmity” with the stronger word “suffering,” the tone would seem more condemnation for the English Litany’s position.
B A. By replacing “infirmity” with the weaker word “suffering,” the tone would seem more in favor of the English Litany’s position.
C B. By replacing “infirmity” with the stronger word “suffering,” the tone would seem more in favor of the English Litany’s position.
D D. There would be no change in tone.
REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS questions 8-15Click to Read Text
REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTSConsider the following two articles, “As Food Imports Rise, So Do Safety Concerns” and “Two Concerns Addressed with One Stone” to answer questions 1–8.
As Food Imports Rise, So Do Safety Concerns
|(1)||From New Zealand lamb to Mexican papaya and Colombian coffee, your local grocery store provides a truly international experience. And while plantains, eddoes and avocados expand culinary horizons, importing these foods raises legitimate safety concerns.|
|(2)||Americans rely heavily on imported food—the U.S. now imports nearly 85 percent of its fish consumption, and fruit and vegetable imports have doubled since 1998. Even products made in the United States may contain foreign products, such as Chinese wheat gluten or Mexican green onions. And while many countries enforce safety standards equal to those used in the U.S., newly industrialized or industrializing nations may not have the resources or infrastructure to meet safety and quality benchmarks.|
|(3)||Unfortunately, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cannot pick up the slack. The FDA reports that, due to its own lack of resources, 99 percent of the imports that enter the U.S. are not inspected.|
|(4)||Experts agree that prevention, not inspection, will best ensure food safety. One life sciences company, Global Food Technologies, Inc., has developed an organic processing method that ensures that foods do not become contaminated during processing or packaging. By destroying the microbes in the food without harmful chemicals, the company achieves higher safety standards than the minimum required by law. The processing method, designated by the iPura brand name, is currently being used to produce seafood in several overseas nations. Any product bearing the iPura label is guaranteed to be a result of its comprehensive Source-to-Retail food safety program.|
|(5)||The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 325,000 Americans are hospitalized and 5,000 die annually from foodborne illnesses. A food company that does not adhere to food safety practices will eventually be driven out of business, a fact that tends to encourage good practices and results in a relatively safe food supply. Yet reports of new outbreaks continually surface, indicating that more work must be done to safeguard the food supply.|
Two Concerns Addressed with One Stone
|(1)||A global recession has a wearied public in its grip as consumers tighten their belts. Policymakers are engaging in a fierce battle for short-term and long-term solutions while ordinary Americans go about their daily lives with hopes that the situation won’t get any worse.|
|(2)||Nearly one trillion dollars has been injected into the faltering system, but immediate success has yet to materialize. Fears about the sagging pocketbook are coupled with feelings of insecurity about the safety and quality of products being imported from overseas, especially the food being imported into the U.S. at an unprecedented rate. Americans currently import over 80 percent of seafood meals consumed, while statistics indicate that seafood is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses. With the FDA able to inspect less than one percent of the shipments into U.S. ports, consumers have expressed deep concern about the safety of their families.|
|(3)||A California-based life sciences company, Global Food Technologies (GFT), is primed to take advantage of the current economic situation by offering its first product into the market, iPura. The first of its kind, iPura is a food-safety company with a unique approach combining technological hardware and methods with trained technicians to ensure that the very highest standards have been implemented in the delivery of seafood imported from overseas.|
|(4)||Including an organic “clean step” that reduces disease-causing pathogens, iPura escorts the product from foreign-based factories to the U.S.-held fork with a seal of authenticity that includes temperature monitoring, traceability, and full transparency for the consumer.|
|(5)||“iPura instills confidence in foreign-sourced seafood by giving consumers the peace of mind they deserve,” says GFT President Keith Meeks.|
|(6)||With the wild volatility of most sectors on Wall Street, household goods and staples have not fallen as much as the others, reflective of the trend for consumers to take care of essentials before discretionary purchases such as electronic goods and new automobiles. As food safety has become a major concern for food company executives, with 84 percent in a recent survey stating that food safety is their main priority, iPura offers investors a chance to profit in a time of uncertainty and economic downturn by meeting market demand.|
What thematic idea do these two articles share?
A The economic crisis has caused Americans to import more foods.
B Foods imported from other countries can be dangerous to Americans’ health.
C Americans cannot produce their own foods fast enough to make enough produce to feed themselves without relying on imports.
D Imported foods make up the vast majority of our diet.
According to the first text, the Food and Drug Administration inspects what percentage of food imports entering the United States?
A 15 percent
B 1 percent
C 99 percent
D 85 percent
What is one point about which the authors would disagree?
A The biggest factor dealing with imported foods is the economy.
B Imports have a role in many of our health problems.
C America should do more to increase its own food production.
D Imports are responsible for our failing economy.
How does the impact of these two texts differ?
A The first article encourages readers to buy organic foods, while the second article urges readers to consider more healthfully treated foods.
B The first article urges Americans to be more health conscious, while the second encourages us to be more fiscally conservative.
C The first article informs readers of the potential impacts of imported food on our health, and the second encourages readers to seek other solutions.
D The first article broadens the scope of imports to many kinds of foods, whereas the second article simply deals with seafood.
How is the idea of iPura differently emphasized in these two articles?
A The first article examines it as a business model, and the second article uses it to emphasize the dangers of imported foods.
B The first article discusses iPura as a business model, while the second discusses its beneficial qualities as a scientific endeavor.
C The first article mentions it as a new method to ensure safety, and the second article furthers this idea by highlighting it as a vehicle for helping America’s failing economy.
D The first article uses it as a scare tactic, while the second article examines the role it can play in ensuring American safety.
What is the purpose of the first article?
A to encourage Americans to grow their own food
B to discuss the beneficial qualities of the company iPura
C to warn Americans about the potential hazardous impacts of imported foods
D to criticize the FDA for not inspecting our imports
What is the purpose of the second article?
A to warn Americans about the harmful effects of imported foods
B to comment on the impacts a failing economy can have on America’s consumer habits
C to applaud iPura for its revolutionary business model
D to inform Americans about alternatives to imported foods
What is something these two authors would agree about?
A Failing health creates innovative companies.
B Consumer safety should be the No. 1 priority when dealing with imported foods.
C Reliance on imported foods should be diminished.
D A struggling economy creates innovative companies.
REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS Section 2
Innovation and Invention Stimulus Passage #1
Excerpt from Nature’s Teachings by John George Wood
It is tolerably evident that the first raft was nothing more than a tree-trunk. Finding that the single trunk was apt to turn over with the weight of the occupant, the next move was evidently to lash two trunks side by side.
Next would come the great advance of putting the trunks at some distance apart, and connecting them with cross-bars. This plan would obviate even the chance of the upsetting of the raft, and it still survives in that curious mixture of the raft and canoe, the outrigger boat of the Polynesians, which no gale of wind can upset. It may be torn to pieces by the storm, but nothing can capsize it as long as it holds together.
Laying a number of smaller logs or branches upon the bars which connect the larger logs is an evident mode of forming a continuous platform, and thus the raft is completed. It would not be long before the superior buoyancy of a hollow over a solid log would be discovered, and so, when the savage could not find a log ready hollowed to his hand, he would hollow one for himself, mostly using fire in lieu of tools. The progress from a hollowed log, or “dug-out,” as it is popularly called, to the bark canoe, and then the built boat, naturally followed, the boats increasing in size until they were developed into ships.
Now, let us ask ourselves whether, in creation, there are any natural boats which existed before man came upon the earth, and from which he might have taken the idea if he had been able to reason on the subject. The Paper Nautilus is, of course, the first example that comes before the mind; but although, as we have seen, the delicate shell of the nautilus is not used as a boat,and its sailing and rowing powers are alike fabulous, there is, as is the case with most fables, a substratum of truth, and there are aquatic mollusks which form themselves into boats, although they do not propel themselves with sails or oars.
Innovation and Invention Stimulus Passage #2
Excerpt of Inaugural Address of President John F. Kennedy Washington, D.C.
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God.
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
This much we pledge—and more.
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.
A Innovation and Invention Stimulus Passage #1
B Innovation and Invention Stimulus Passage #2
Simplify the following expression. 5 – 2(3 – 5)³ + 2² – (–11)
Questions 2 and 3 refer to the chart below. Wilson High School 2012 Total Students = 1,200 2. The number of 9th graders attending the high school in 2014 is expected to be 20% greater than the 2012 total. How many 9th graders are expected to be at the high school in 2014?
Questions 2 and 3 refer to the chart below. Wilson High School 2012 Total Students = 1,200 3. What is the measure of the central angle created by the sum of the 9th and 11th graders?
A rectangular television screen is sold by the length of its diagonal. If the diagonal is 45 inches and the height of the screen is 27 inches, what is the area of the screen?
A 1,215 in²
B 972 in²
C 1,008 in²
D 1,620 in²
A board game uses a six-sided die and a spinner with the colors red, yellow and blue. What is the probability of throwing a 4 or 6 and spinning red or blue?
If x² + 6x = 40, what are the values of x – 6?
A –16, –2
B 16, –2
C –20, 2
D 10, –4
Elena has an exercise routine in which she runs uphill, rests and bikes downhill (not in any set order). The graph below shows her routine on a given day What is the order in which Elena rested, biked, and ran?
A ran, biked, rested
B biked, rested, ran
C rested, biked, ran
D ran, rested, biked
A y = 2x – 3
B y = –4x + 2
C y = 2x – 7
D y = –3x + 3
James placed $7,500 in a certificate of deposit (CD) at his local bank. The interest the CD generated was $731.25. If the interest rate was 6.5%, for how many months was the money deposited?
Lori needs an 85% average in her math class to move on to the next class. On her first three exams, she earned scores of 81%, 78%, and 97%. What must Lori score on her fourth and final test to earn an 85% grade for the class?
All of the following may inhibit enzymatic reactions EXCEPT:
A pH level
C lack of substrate
D excess of substrate
All of the following are steps of photosynthesis EXCEPT:
A Water is separated into hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
B During photolysis a photon of light is absorbed by the chlorophyll pigment, which then is in an excited (higher energy) state.
C Chlorophyll is absorbed through plant roots.
D An ADP molecule is phosphorylated to ATP.
Which has the least mass?
C hydrogen atom
Most animals have internal or external skeletons for structure and support. Which of the following parts provide a similar function in plant cells?
C cell membranes
D cell walls
Pathogens in the form of airborne droplets are most likely to cause which of the following illnesses?
B stomach virus
D throat infection
In glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is broken down into all of the following EXCEPT
A pyruvic acid
B H+ 13.
When astronomers observe the redshift of light from a faraway star, this means that the star is
A ready to explode.
B moving away from us.
C a dwarf star.
D moving toward us.
Rabbits are not native to Australia, having been brought there from England by sailors in the 18th century. Yet rabbits have thrived and have, in fact, overpopulated Australia. In addition, rabbits and certain native Australian wallabies, although not closely related, resemble each other as to body structure and habits. Which idea about evolution is supported by these facts?
A Mass extinctions of species and the emergence of new species can be studied by examining the fossil record.
B Different species originally developed because of changes in some shared ancestral genetic code.
C Species evolve in similar ways when they react to similar surroundings.
D Many species have body parts that look similar because they evolved from the same ancestral mammal.
ScienceClick to Read Text
Three offspring of two normal-skinned parents have normal skin, but one is albino. Which of the following must be true?
A One parent must have the nn genotype.
B One parent must have the NN genotype.
C Both parents must have the NN genotype.
D Both parents must have the Nn genotype.
The albino offspring from the F1 generation described above produces one albino offspring and one normal offspring in the F2 generation. What must be the genotype of the albino’s mate?
A either Nn or NN
B either Nn or nn
What percentage of the offspring of two albino parents would most likely be normal?
What are the chances that two normal parents each carrying recessive genes for albinism could have a heterozygous normal offspring?
A 1 out of 2
B 2 out of 3
C 3 out of 4
D 0 out of 4
Which of the following chemical equations is NOT properly balanced?
A C3 H3 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2 O
B CH4 + O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O
C 2NaCL + F2 → 2NAF + CL2
D FeCl3 – 3NaOH → Fe(OH)3 – 3NaCl
Why does a food chain generally have no more than five trophic levels?
A Many organisms have multiple food sources.
B There is no way to determine the upper trophic levels.
C There is a loss of energy at each trophic level.
D The loss of biodiversity has limited the variety of organisms
ScienceClick to Read Text
Use the following information to answer questions 1-2.
The formation of holes in the Earth’s ozone layer due to chemicals used by humans allows more ultraviolet (UV) light to reach the oceans. Increased UV light can kill phytoplankton, marine algae, and other microorganisms.
Which statement BEST describes how a large decrease in phytoplankton and marine algae would affect the ocean food web?
A The number of decomposers would increase as the phytoplankton and marine algae die.
B The effect would not be drastic since the organisms are so small.
C The number of consumers in the food web would increase as the producers decrease.
D The number of marine animals would decrease due to the decrease in producers.
Which of the following explains the MOST LIKELY effect of increased UV light on alpine and polar lakes that are very clear?
A The UV light would stimulate photosynthesis, resulting in a more stable ecosystem.
B The UV light would raise the temperature of the alpine and polar lakes, which would help the microorganisms repair themselves.
C The UV light would penetrate to a greater depth in lakes that have clear water, potentially doing greater damage to the ecosystem.
D The increase in solar UV radiation would increase the rate of mutation in microorganisms such as phytoplankton and algae, so that they would no longer be a healthy food source for marine animals.
The graph below shows the year 2013 purchasing power of having $50 in previous years. According to the graph above, which decade experienced the fastest rate of inflation?
A The unemployment rate, decline in housing market, and number of foreclosures are unrelated.
B Foreclosures increased steadily throughout the period between 2008 and 2011 with little or no correlation to the unemployment rate.
C The unemployment rate remained steady from 2009 to 2011; however, the decrease in the housing market increased.
D The unemployment rate increased from 2008 to 2011, causing the number of foreclosures to increase.
According to the above map, April 15, 1861 was significant. What conclusion can be made about this date?
A The territories did not have slavery.
B The Southern states had seceded from the Union.
C The United States had a new president.
D The line drawn by the Missouri Compromise in 1850 did not apply to California.
A A large area of desert can be found in Northern Africa.
B There is no desert in Australia.
C Most desertification occurs near the equator.
D There is a large desert area in South America.
A Latin America and the Caribbean were a great source of refugees in 2010.
B Iran and Iraq had a large number of refugees.
C Refugees come to the United States from Europe.
D More than half the refugees in the United States were from Asia.
Social Studies Part 2: Reading
Based on the above statement, what would be a reasonable prediction for 2011 about the rate of uninsured in relation to the total American population?
A Uninsured rates would be expected to rise as the economy improved and early provisions expanding coverage under the ACA went into effect.
B There would be no uninsured Americans left because, under the ACA, all Americans are mandated to carry health insurance.
C Uninsured rates would be expected to drop as the economy improved and early provisions expanding coverage under the ACA went into effect.
D Newly insured Americans would place a strain on the Medicaid system.
In his letter, George W. Harkins is referring to which of the following?
A People’s Protest at the University of California at Berkeley
B American Indian Movement
C Civil Rights Movement
D Indian Removal Act
Which conclusion can you draw from the information in the Harkins letter?
A The Choctaw tribe was leaving their lands voluntarily.
B The Choctaw tribe wanted to move to another place.
C The Choctaw tribe was being forced to leave their lands.
D The Choctaw tribe had no land.
Which of the following are shared powers of the Federal and State governments?
A Provide the legal basis and charter for a new bank in the state of Wyoming
B Make it possible for an immigrant to become a citizen of the United States
C Establish a new school system in Shelby County, Tennessee
D Admit Puerto Rico as a new state
In the introduction to this chart the word concurrent most likely means which of the following?
A Near but not next to one another
B Shared by both federal and state
C Occurring in two geographic places at the same time
D Next to one another
Marbury v. Madison is one of the most important Supreme Court rulings in United States history. Since the decision, many cases have gone before the Courts. Based on this information and the information in the previous paragraphs, why was this ruling so significant?
A Denied Adams’s right to make midnight appointments
B Confirmed Congress’s power to expand judicial authority
C Affirmed the power of the court to declare a law unconstitutional
D Upheld Adams’s right to make midnight appointments
What organization was often the target of mass demonstrations, a few of them violent, against globalization?
A CBC–Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
B NATO– North Atlantic Treaty Organization
C WTO–World Trade Organization
D NASA–National Aeronautics and Space Administration